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Original Research

Year: 2021 I Volume: 3 I Issue: 2 I Pages I 7-13

The impact of moderate combination exercise on HbA1c, IL-6, and TNF in type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic subjects: an interventional non-randomized clinical trial

Bandar Alharbi1, Nawal Alsubaie1*, Tarsem S. Sahota1, , M. Joan Taylor1

1 De Montfort University, Leicester, UK

* Corresponding Author:

Nawal Alsubaie, Msc, PhD


Source of funding:  None  


Conflict of interest: None

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Key words: Diabetes type 2, exercise, HbA1c, IL-6 and TNF, interventional non-randomized clinical trial.



Introduction: The main causes of worldwide increase in prevalence of type 2 diabetes are the daily consumption of excessive number of calories  and sedentary lifestyle. Diabetes is usually accompanied by hypertension, lipid disorders and obesity that are considered as risk factors for developing diabetes. This study is designed to assess the benefit of a combined exercise programme (cardio “aerobic” and resistance) on HbA1c and the inflammatory markers (IL-6, and TNF) in type 2 diabetic (T2D) and non-diabetic (ND) subjects. Materials and methods: This is an interventional non randomized clinical trial conducted from 2016 to 2019 at exercise physiology laboratory at De Montfort University (DMU). Our target volunteers are T2D (HbA1c > 6.4), and ND (HbA1c < 5.8) with age group from 18-60 years old who are fit and able to do exercise. No restriction on weight. HbA1c, weight, BMI, waist and lung capacity were measured at baseline and at the 12th exercise session. In each exercise session the participant performed a combined exercise program consists of 30 min of resistance exercise followed by 20 min moderate cycling to be done twice a week for 6 weeks. Results: We enrolled 17 T2D intervention group 4 female and 13 male and 8 ND control group 5 female and 3 male. In both groups there was a significant reduction in HbA1c level after 6 weeks (P= 0.000).  In T2D there were a significant weight reduction that decreased from (92.0± 4.3) to (90.0±4.5), (P< 0.001), BMI reduction that decreased from (30.8± 1.0) to (30.2± 0.9), (P< 0.001). In ND, the changes in weight reduction and BMI level were not significant. In T2D the changes in IL-6 level were only significant after the last exercise session. It was increased from 1.79±0.4 to 3.88±1.9 pg/ml (P=0.002), while it was not significant in ND group. In T2D and ND subjects, the changes in TNF level were insignificant. Conclusion: Development of combination exercise programs as a non-pharmacological intervention for diabetic and non-diabetic population are essential to decrease the prevalence of diabetes worldwide. In addition to conduction of public awareness events for proper implementation.

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