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Case Report
Year: 2021 I Volume: 3 I Issue: 4 I Pages I 1-3

Therapy Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Solid Tumors:  Two Pediatric Case Reports and Review of the Literature  

Bodour Elhussein 1*, Ebtsam Alhariri 1, Amal Najm 1, Walid Ibrahim 1, Ghaleb Elyamany 2, Omar Alsharif 1, Amal Binhasan 1, Hasna Hamzi 1.

  1. Pediatric Oncology and Stem Cell Transplant Unit, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

  2. Department of Central Military Laboratory and Blood Bank, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

* Corresponding Author:

Bodour Elhussein, MD

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Source of funding:  None


Conflict of interest: None

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Key wards: Pediatric Ewing sarcoma, Rhabdomyosarcoma, Therapy-related AML.  


Introduction: Therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia is devastating late effects in solid tumors. The most frequent and lethal secondary malignancy is secondary acute myeloid leukemia t-AML. t-AML is a sequel of specific chemotherapeutic agents, specifically alkylating agents, and topoisomerase II inhibitors, commonly used in treating solid tumors.

t-AML is relatively rare with a poor prognosis. 

Case description: We are presenting two cases of t-AML.  

Case 1: A 13-year-old girl presented with left hand swelling in 2014. Biopsy confirmed the diagnosis as Ewing sarcoma. She started a chemotherapy regimen that contained alkylating agents and epipodophyllotoxins. In 2017, local recurrence occurred, and she received salvage chemotherapy (ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide) followed by amputation of the left 4th finger. In 2020, she had a second local recurrence with unexplained prolonged neutropenia. Diagnosis of t-AML was confirmed by bone marrow aspiration.  

Case 2: A 5-years-old boy presented with an abdominal mass in July 2006. It was diagnosed as rhabdomyosarcoma and treated with alkylating agents. He showed a good response to the treatment initially. In September 2007, prolonged pancytopenia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia occurred. Diagnosis of t-AML was confirmed by bone marrow aspiration as it showed mild dysplastic, moderate marrow fibrosis.  

Conclusion: t-AML is of growing interest to the pediatric oncologist and requires further studies to develop pathways for leukemogenesis. We discussed two cases to highlight the importance of designing treatment regimens for solid tumors associated with t-AML.  

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